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Endoparasites - Trichostrongylus

Trichostrongylus axei: Stomach hair worm, bankrupt worm.

General Description: The adult worm is tiny (0.5 centimetres) and hair-like.

Life Cycle: Direct. Infective third-stage larvae are produced about 6 days after the eggs leave the host in faeces, if temperature and humidity levels are sufficiently high. Infective larvae are ingested by animals. The prepatent period is approximately 20 to 25 days.

Location: Abomasum and occasionally small intestine.

Geographical Distribution: Worldwide.

Significance: Serious weight loss and poor growth occur when animals are heavily infected - especially in mixed infection with Ostertagia. Young animals are most susceptible but infection also occurs in older animals.

Effect on Host: Adult may penetrate the lining of the abomasum, causing irritation. Wart-like swellings may occur in these areas and cause diarrhoea, and reduce appetite.

Diagnostic Information: Strongyle-type eggs are found in faeces.

Control: Pasture management and anthelmintic treatment of animals are important in reducing populations of infective larvae on pasture.


   
Trichostrongylus – egg   Trichostrongylus axei – adult male   T. axei – anterior end

           

 

Trichostrongylus spp.: T. vitrinus, T. colubriformis hair worm, bankrupt worm, black scours worm.

General Description: Thin reddish-brown nematodes up to 5.5mm long. Males have bursae with large lateral lobes.

Life Cycle: Typical direct nematode life cycle. Strongyle-type eggs in faeces are thin-shelled. Infective larvae develop in a minimum of 4 to 6 days; much longer periods are required in cool temperatures. Third-stage larvae may survive 4 to 6 months on pasture. Infection occurs by ingestion; the developing larvae burrow superficially into the crypts of the mucosa. The prepatent period is 20 to 25 days.

Location: Small intestine.

Geographically Distribution: Worldwide.

Significance: Losses from Trichostrongylus species infections can be significant. Trichostrongylus is commonly present in mixed-species infections, so its effect is additive.

Effect on Host: Weakness and death can occur in young animals when heavily infected. This may be acute if the infection occurs over a short period of time. In chronic infections, wasting can occur along with constipation or diarrhoea. The appetite may be depressed and wasting may occur. Weakness may be the only sign of acute infection. Although clinical anaemia is not a common sign, the combined effect of emaciation, diarrhoea and malnutrition may result in anaemia. If coccidiosis accompanies trichostrongylosis, enteritis may occur.

Diagnostic Information: Strongyle-type eggs appear in faeces.

Control: Pasture management can be used to reduce Trichostrongylus larvae on pasture. Immunity develops to Trichostrongylus, and self-cure may result after a period of infection. Anthelmintics may be used to treat such animals while they are still susceptible to damage by the parasite.


 
T.colubriformis – posterior end male   Trichostrongylus – eggs
     
                   
Dead sheep – Trichostrongylosis

           

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