Calicophoron calicophorum syn. C.ijimai: Rumen fluke.
General Description: Light red, pear-shaped flukes, 5 to 13mm long and 2 to 5mm
wide with a large posterior sucker.
Life Cycle: Indirect, with a variety of aquatic snails as intermediate hosts. Eggs
pass in faeces; the miracidium hatches in 12 to 17 days and swims free in water
before penetrating a snail. Cercariae which develop and mature in the snails, are
shed, and encyst as metacercariae on vegetation. Total development in snails requires
about 34 days. The metacercariae may live on pasture for about three months. Sheep
are infected by ingesting cysts on grass. Digestion releases metacercariae in the
intestine where they attach and mature for 6 to 8 weeks before migrating forward
to the rumen. Prepatent period is 3 to 4 months.
Location: Rumen; immature forms live in small intestine.
Geographical Distribution: Probably worldwide.
Significance: Infected sheep do not feed or digest efficiently and become unthrifty.
Effect on Host: Immature flukes attached to the wall of the small intestine cause
serious inflammation. Digestion and absorption are impaired; bleeding may occur.
Appetite is also depressed. Infected animals, therefore, eat less; what feed is
consumed in incompletely digested and absorbed. Diarrhoea results. Sheep lose weight
and become weak. Bleeding for a prolonged period may cause anaemia to occur, which
further weakens the host.
Diagnostic Information: Eggs in faeces indicate presence of adult rumen flukes,
which themselves do not cause disease. Demonstration of the diarrhoea is a better
indication of damage being caused by immature flukes of Paramphistomum cervi.
Control: Snails live on wet pasture, which can be drained or fenced off. Anthelmintic
treatment of infected sheep has not been very successful.
Paramphistomum – adults